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Biology Specimen for WAEC 2024

Posted by Admin on 9th May May » 2151 views
BIOLOGY SPECIMEN FOR WAEC 2024

Specimen A: Gill Of Fish (Freshly Procured).

The gill is a vital respiratory organ found in fish, responsible for exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide. It is made up of thin filaments that absorb oxygen from the water and release carbon dioxide. The gill is a remarkable example of adaptation, allowing fish to thrive in aquatic environments.

FEATURES:
• Thin filaments
• Absorbs oxygen from water
• Releases carbon dioxide

FUNCTIONS:
• Respiration
• Gas exchange
• Allows fish to thrive in aquatic environments



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Specimen B: Whole Liver From A Domestic Fowl With Gall Bladder Attached, In A Petri Dish (Freshly Procured)

The liver is a vital organ responsible for detoxification, metabolism, and energy storage. It produces bile, which is stored in the gall bladder and released into the digestive system to aid in fat absorption. The liver is a complex organ with many functions, including filtering toxins from the blood.

FEATURES:
• Vital organ
• Produces bile
• Filters toxins from blood
• Stores energy and nutrients

FUNCTIONS:
• Detoxification
• Metabolism
• Energy storage
• Aids in fat absorption

Specimen C: Lungs From A Domestic Fowl On A White Tile (Freshly Procured)

The lungs are organs responsible for gas exchange, bringing oxygen into the body and removing carbon dioxide. They are made up of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where gas exchange occurs. The lungs are a vital part of the respiratory system, essential for the survival of all living organisms.

FEATURES:
• Made up of tiny air sacs (alveoli)
• Exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide
• Essential for gas exchange

FUNCTIONS:
dioxideSpecime
• Respiration
• Gas exchange
• Brings oxygen into the body
• Removes carbon dioxide

Specimen D: Whole Gizzard From A Domestic Fowl, In A Petri Dish (Freshly Procured)

The gizzard is a muscular organ in birds that helps grind food in the digestive process. It is made up of strong muscles and a tough lining, allowing it to break down tough plant material. The gizzard is an adaptation that has enabled birds to thrive on a wide range of food sources.

FEATURES:
• Muscular organ
• Grinds food in digestive process
• Breaks down tough plant material

FUNCTIONS:
• Digestion
• Breaks down food
• Absorbs nutrients

Specimen E: Whole Intestine From A Domestic Fowl Spread In A Tray (Freshly Procured)

The intestine is responsible for absorbing nutrients from food in the digestive process. It is made up of a long, thin tube with many finger-like projections called villi, which increase the surface area for absorption. The intestine is a vital part of the digestive system, essential for the survival of all living organisms.

FEATURES:
• Long, thin tube
• Finger-like projections (villi)
• Absorbs nutrients from food

FUNCTIONS:
• Digestion
• Absorbs nutrients
• Essential for survival

Specimen F: Ginger Rhizome (Fresh)

Ginger is a plant with a spicy, edible root used in cooking and medicine. The rhizome is the underground stem of the plant, which produces new shoots and roots. Ginger has been used for centuries for its medicinal properties, including relieving nausea and pain.

FEATURES:
• Underground stem
• Produces new shoots and roots
• Spicy, edible root

FUNCTIONS:
• Reproduction
• Medicinal properties
• Relieves nausea and pain

Specimen G: Onion Bulb

The onion is a plant with a bulbous underground storage organ used in cooking. The bulb is made up of layers of cells that store energy and nutrients. Onions are a staple ingredient in many cuisines around the world, adding flavor and texture to a variety of dishes.

FEATURES:
• Bulbous underground storage organ
• Layers of cells store energy and nutrients
• Edible

FUNCTIONS:
• Food source
• Stores energy and nutrients
• Adds flavor and texture to dishes

Specimen H: Leaf Of Bryophyllum (With Adventitious Roots)

Bryophyllum is a plant that can grow new plants from its leaves, with adventitious roots forming on the leaves. This adaptation allows the plant to reproduce quickly and efficiently, making it a successful species in many environments.

FEATURES:
• Adventitious roots form on leaves
• Reproduces quickly and efficiently
• Successful species in many environments

FUNCTIONS:
• Reproduction
• Adaptation
• Allows plant to thrive in various environments

Specimen J: Cassava Stem

Cassava is a tropical plant with a starchy root used as a food source. The stem is made up of a tough, fibrous material that provides support and structure for the plant. Cassava is a vital crop for many communities around the world, providing a reliable source of energy and nutrients.

FEATURES:
• Tough, fibrous material
• Provides support and structure
• Starchy root used as food source

FUNCTIONS:
• Support and structure
• Food source
• Provides energy and nutrients

Specimen K: Cassava Tuber
The cassava tuber is the starchy, edible root of the cassava plant. It is made up of a white or yellowish flesh that is high in carbohydrates and low in protein. Cassava is a staple food for many people around the world, particularly in tropical regions.

FEATURES:
• Starchy, edible root
• High in carbohydrates, low in protein
• Staple food for many people

FUNCTIONS:
• Food source
• Provides energy and nutrients
• Essential for survival

Specimen L: Thoracic Vertebra

The thoracic vertebra is a bone in the spine, located in the chest region. It is made up of a body, pedicles, and transverse processes, which provide support and protection for the spinal cord. The thoracic vertebra is an important part of the skeletal system, allowing for flexibility and movement.

FEATURES:
• Body, pedicles, transverse processes, and spinous process
• Provides support and protection for spinal cord
• Allows for flexibility and movement

FUNCTIONS:
• Support and protection
– Flexibility and movement
– Essential for spinal column

Specimen M: Humerus Bone

The humerus is the long bone of the upper arm. It is made up of a shaft, head, and condyles, which provide support and attachment points for muscles and ligaments. The humerus is an important part of the skeletal system, allowing for movement and flexibility in the arm.

FEATURES:
• Long bone of upper arm
• Shaft, head, and condyles
• Provides support and attachment points for muscles and ligaments

FUNCTIONS:
• Support and attachment points
• Allows for movement and flexibility
• Essential for skeletal system
Specimen N: Mango seed (dry)
The mango seed is the reproductive structure of the mango plant. It is made up of a hard, woody coat that surrounds a single embryo. Mango seeds are an important part of the life cycle of the mango plant, allowing it to reproduce and spread.

FEATURES:
• Hard, woody coat
• Single embryo
• Reproductive structure

FUNCTIONS:
• Reproduction
• Allows mango plant to reproduce and spread
• Essential for life cycle

Specimen P: Femur Bone

The femur is the long bone of the thigh. It is made up of a shaft, head, and condyles, which provide support and attachment points for muscles and ligaments. The femur is an important part of the skeletal system, allowing for movement and flexibility in the leg.

FEATURES:
• Long bone of thigh
• Shaft, head, and condyles
• Provides support and attachment points for muscles and ligaments

FUNCTIONS:
• Support and attachment points
• Allows for movement and flexibility
• Essential for skeletal system

Specimen Q: Lumbar Vertebra
The lumbar vertebra is a bone in the spine, located in the lower back. It is made up of a body, pedicles, transverse processes, and a spinous process, which provide support and protection for the spinal cord.

The lumbar vertebra is an important part of the skeletal system, allowing for flexibility and movement in the lower back. It also bears the weight of the body and provides attachment points for muscles and ligaments.

FEATURES:
• Body, pedicles, transverse processes, and spinous process
• Provides support and protection for spinal cord
• Allows for flexibility and movement

FUNCTIONS:
• Support and prFunctions
• Flexibility and movement
• Essential for spinal column
• Bears weight of body
• Provides attachment points for muscles and ligaments

Specimen R: Orange Seeds (Dry)
(i) Group Specimen: Orange seeds (dry) can be provided as a group specimen for 5-10 candidates, allowing multiple students to observe and study the specimen simultaneously.
(ii) Individual Labels: Each specimen, including the Orange seeds (dry), must carry an individual label (e.g., R) to identify it clearly.

This labeling system ensures that each specimen is easily recognizable and distinguishable from others.

BIOLOGY SPECIMEN FOR WAEC 2024 PICTURES




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